2018

ADHD and Attentional Control: Impaired Segregation of Task Positive and Task Negative Brain Networks

Mills, Brian D. and Miranda-Dominguez, Oscar and Mills, Kathryn L. and Earl, Eric and Cordova, Michaela and Painter, Julia and Karalunas, Sarah L. and Nigg, Joel T. and Fair, Damien A.

10.1162/netn_a_00034

In children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) difficulty maintaining task focus may relate to the coordinated, negatively correlated activity between brain networks that support the initiation and maintenance of task sets (task positive networks) and networks that mediate internally directed processes (i.e., the default mode network). Here, resting-state functional connectivity MRI between these networks was examined in ADHD, across development, and in relation to attention. Children with ADHD had reduced negative connectivity between task positive and task negative networks (p = 0.002). Connectivity continues to become more negative between these networks throughout development (7-15 years of age) in children with ADHD (p = 0.005). Regardless of group status, females had increased negative connectivity (p = 0.003). In regards to attentional performance, the ADHD group had poorer signal detection (d’) on the continuous performance task (CPT) (p < 0.0001), more so on easy than difficult d’ trials (p < 0.0001). The reduced negative connectivity in children with ADHD also relates to their attention, where increased negative connectivity is related to better performance on the d’ measure of the CPT (p = 0.008). These results highlight and further strengthen prior reports underscoring the role of segregated system integrity in ADHD.

Cite this paper:

@article{millsADHDAttentionalControl2018,
  title = {{{ADHD}} and Attentional Control: {{Impaired}} Segregation of Task Positive and Task Negative Brain Networks},
  shorttitle = {{{ADHD}} and Attentional Control},
  author = {Mills, Brian D. and {Miranda-Dominguez}, Oscar and Mills, Kathryn L. and Earl, Eric and Cordova, Michaela and Painter, Julia and Karalunas, Sarah L. and Nigg, Joel T. and Fair, Damien A.},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {200--217},
  issn = {2472-1751},
  doi = {10.1162/netn_a_00034},
  file = {/Users/jonny/Zotero/storage/4HJCAUIB/Mills et al. - 2018 - ADHD and attentional control Impaired segregation.pdf},
  journal = {Network Neuroscience},
  keywords = {adhd,Attentional control,children,Default mode   network,default mode network,deficit hyperactivity disorder,deficit/hyperactivity disorder,fluctuations,functional connectivity,Functional connectivity MRI,Negative connectivity,resting-state   fmri,signal,sustained   attention,Task positive network,working-memory},
  language = {English},
  number = {2}
}